The landscape is only suggested by varied parallel lines and blank space. Unlike Venetian and Florentine cuts printed before , the image has no ornamentation or decorative border to enhance its artistic quality.
This medieval style produces a much different effect than the compositional arrangements and skilled craftsmanship of Venetian and Florentine woodcuts. Raynaldus Monsaureus. Sermo de visione Dei.
He began to kill his brother with taunting. Oxford: Clarendon Press, The words, "Who spake by the Prophets," means who spoke through the prophets. The Third Ecumenical Council was convened in the year A. The veneration of the Mother of God in the Orthodox Church is based not so much on Scripture as on a centuries-old experience of many people to whom, in one way or another, the mystery of the Holy Virgin was revealed. Very little is said in Holy Scripture about the Holy Virgin: her place in the New Testament is very modest, especially if we compare it with the place she occupies in the life of the Church. As a result of sin, marriages split up, friends part ways, relationships are strained, etc.
Produced in Ferrara during the last years of the fifteenth century, this famous woodcut was designed specifically as a binding. It was printed and then pasted to the boards that protected the volume.
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It has no relationship to the text, printed in Milan. The border designs and patterned ornaments of this woodcut binding are produced in the black-ground manner in Florentine style, probably in the shop of the noted printer Lorenzo di Rossi, who worked in Ferrara for forty years. The outline design of the figures, flowers, urns, and cherubs suggests the influence of the "popular" design of Venetian woodcuts. The image is a powerful example of the various influences that contributed to the evolving style of the Italian woodcut in the late fifteenth century.
This copy is one of only two known and is the only copy in an American collection. Battista Fregoso. Anteros, sive Tractatus contra amorem. Milan: Leonardus Pachel, This edition of the Accounts of the Evangelists was based on Piero Pacini's edition of the Epistles of the Evangelists printed fourteen months earlier no. The first leaf of the text is illustrated with a half-page woodcut of the "Last Judgment," cut in outline and enclosed by a full-page, black-line architectural border in the "popular" style of the Venetian woodcut.
This well-known design was first employed by Venetian printers in before Bartolommeo di Libri used it in this Florentine edition of It lacks the sophistication of Pacini's designs, in which the borders were more carefully defined, and the figures were rendered with more individual characteristics and natural body movements. However, the design is an excellent example of the fluid nature of the printing trade in Italy and the movement of woodblocks and woodcut designs from printer to printer.
It also demonstrates how local styles, once circulated, were absorbed by designers in other printing markets. This volume is the only copy of the book in the United States and one of only several known surviving copies. Esposizione sopra evangeli. Giovanni da Salerno.
Florence: Bartolommeo di Libri, September 24, The "Agony in the Garden" is one of the most complex of the eleven woodcuts that illustrate this text devoted to the Passion of Christ. The spacious arrangement of the image created on such a small scale reflects the compositional influence of religious paintings of the period. The fully developed landscape comfortably encompasses the five figures, with Christ as the focal point. The simple outlines are delicately cut and clearly convey the story of Christ receiving the cup of the passion while the Apostles sleep.
At least three different hands were involved in the cutting of the eleven images for this text. The mixed quality of the images may be related to the nature of the publishing enterprise operated by Lazarus de Soardis, who was known to have worked with many other Venetian printers.
It is likely that some of the cuts used in this book came from de Soardis's associates and were originally designed for other publications. Meditatione de la passione de Christo. Venice: Lazarus de Soardis, March 16, This rare illustrated edition on the art of dying was written by the Florentine priest and reformer Girolamo Savonarola, whose rhetoric and political philosophy challenged de Medici Florence in the s. The central image of "The Triumph of Death" is cut in simple contours without embellishment but with great imagination and flair.
Screaming across the sky, death leaves nothing in its wake, not peasant, patrician, pope, or nun. The woodcut is framed by a four-part Florentine style border first used by Bartolommeo di Libri in his edition. The thick, elaborate, black-ground border decorated with classical motifs is a powerful contrast to the simple outline design of the central image.
This second edition printed by Libri is one of five known copies in America, two of which are in the Library of Congress. Girolamo Savonarola. Predica dell'arte del bene morire. Like Stephan Plannck's edition no. However, each of them was newly designed and cut for the smaller format of this book. The composition of this image of "The Annunciation" compresses the design that appeared in the previous editions. The interior setting is more detailed in this new cut, with the addition of double arches and windows and a curtain in the background. The sloping floor provides a sense of perspective, an element missing in the original cut made more than thirty years earlier.
In addition to the architectural features, the image is enhanced by the ornamental designs on the front of the kneeler on which Mary rests, the delineation of the Angel Gabriel's wings, the quality of Mary's hair, the folds of the garments, and the finely cut facial features of both figures.
The judicious use of varied parallel lines to create shading and texture gives the woodcut a dimensionality rarely found in other illustrated books from Plannck's press. Meditationes deu Contemplationes devotissimae. Rome: Stephan Plannck, August 21 This volume contains four " rappresentazioni ," printed tracts and plays celebrating lives of saints and telling biblical stories. These eight- to twelve-leaf pamphlets were a favorite of the Florentine public during the last years of the fifteenth century, and, as competition among publishers increased, woodcuts were added to bolster sales.
This woodcut is the most interesting of the images that illustrates The Story of Joseph, Son of Jacob, printed by Bartolommeo di Libri around The woodcut illustrates the tale of "Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. The woodcut design is perfectly balanced and conveys the desperation of the scene with both force and sensitivity.
The shading near the woman's face, the use of parallel lines to accentuate the movement of the characters, and the varied border styles used to frame the image create a simple but compelling rendering of the story, well suited to the subject of the text. La rappresentatione divota di Joseph figluolo di Jacob.
The first illustrated book containing woodcuts to appear in Basel was printed by Bernhard Richel in Richel's woodcuts show influences of both Gunther Zainer's Augsburg edition of the Speculum humane salvationis printed in and the Netherlandish block book, Biblia pauperum, of the s. After Richel's death in , Nicolaus Kesler took over the business. Jerome removing the thorn from the foot of a lion. The woodcut of "The Christ Child and the Four Evangelists" that decorates this Basel edition of Guillermus Parisiensis's commentaries on the Epistles is executed in a robust manner, especially in its depiction of the Christ Child and the garments of St.
John at the lower left. The body of the child is clearly rendered in round contours and by the delicate use of variable parallel lines. The face of Christ is believable, and the spare use of black lines at the neck and shoulders captures a reality completely lacking in the fifty-three illustrations in the remainder of the book. Guillermus Parisiensis. Postilla super Epistolas et Evangelia.
Basel: Nicolaus Kesler, not before This well-illustrated edition of the Revelations attributed to Methodius was edited by Sebastian Brandt, author of the famous The Ship of Fools.
Its printer, Michael Furter, was among Basel's first generation of printers and spent his entire twenty-nine-year career working there. His edition of the Revelations is illustrated with fifty-five original woodcuts. The images differ in quality, and it appears that at least two different hands cut the blocks. This woodcut of "Adam and Eve in the Garden" is cut in a free, almost sensuous, style, in which a combination of round and angular contours outlines the figures.
The rendering of the physical form of Adam and Eve is further enhanced by the use of varied parallel lines to model their figures, a Renaissance technique that accentuates the form of the human body. Great attention is also paid to Adam and Eve's hair, especially to Eve's flowing mane, a design cut in fine detail, which attests to the block cutter's skill.
However, the renderings of the Tree of Knowledge and the limited detail of the landscape are less successful and exhibit characteristics of medieval style. Revelationes divinae a sanctis angelis factae. Basel: Michael Furter, The source of many French woodcuts during the period of early printing was the illuminated manuscript.
The highly developed French style of illumination was distinctive in its use of contemporary French costume and unique border decoration. The style was also notable for particular facial characteristics used to distinguished the numerous saints, heroes, and historical figures represented in many woodcut images. The woodcuts are part of a much larger series devoted to the way of life for Christians and designed in the French style.
This image demonstrates more artistic imagination than the others that illustrate this book. It depicts the sea rising to the mountain tops moments before it inundates the land and consumes the earth. The powerful form of the rising sea, cut in thick contours, is enhanced by the shading and the placement of the fish throughout the rising column of water. The figures of fish, an early Christian emblem for baptism or cleansing, was a readily recognizable motif to late medieval viewers.