Their study shows that the intensive system yields higher profit than the semi-intensive system. Ali discusses the potential of shrimp culture in Pakistan, examines the basic requirements of commercial shrimp ventures, identifies the species available for culture, describes the construction of ponds, and analyzes production economics. Joseph traces the development of prawn farming in Sri Lanka, and provides data about production, marketing, economics, hatcheries, regulations and monitoring.
The shrimp industry on the west coast of Sri Lanka has attracted a large number of small-scale investors, primarily due to government policies supportive of the industry. The development of a 0. The lack of technical knowledge in selecting suitable sites and management skills are major constraints. There is also a need for imported feeds to supplement locally available ones in order to improve the economic returns. A study by Reyntjens of the pen culture of P.
Reyntjens discusses pen construction, nursery rearing, grow-out operations and costs and returns. In New Caledonia, Penaeus Stylirostris is commercially produced by semi-intensive culture. Profitability is hampered by high costs of investments and labour Pham, The shrimp industry in Asia, however, is being killed by viral and bacterial diseases. The first country to experience a major crash due to diseases was Taiwan , followed by China , Indonesia , India and the Philippines If so many human and capital resources were spent on developing technologies and feeds that would increase shrimp production, just as much or perhaps even more human effort and funds would be required to reverse the environmental degradation, to contain the diseases, and to right the social inequities spawned by the shrimp industry.
Milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal has long been cultured in brackishwater ponds in Indonesia, the Philippines and Taiwan P.
During the last few years, India and Viet Nam have also ventured into milkfish culture, either commercially or on an experimental basis. Milkfish has been the primary aquaculture product of Indonesia, the Philippines and Taiwan P. Smith et al. The combined annual production of milkfish production in these countries exceeds mt. Yet, production has been on the decline since the ss due to a number of factors. The first is the shrimp boom. Increasing demand for export and rising prices have encouraged the fish farmers who used to monoculture milkfish, or polyculture it with shrimp, to shift to shrimp monoculture Montalvo and Pomeroy, Smith et al cite the declining profitability of milkfish culture as another reason for farms to shift to other species like tilapia that have greater domestic or export market potential.
The decline in milkfish culture profitability in the Philippines and Taiwan P. In Indonesia, high transport costs practically prevent the farmers from getting into major market centres. Economic studies on all phases of milkfish production - from broodstock to post-harvest handling - have been made in the milkfish-producing countries. Librero et al. Agbayani et al. Economic analysis shows negative net present values and internal rate of return in a year discounted cash flow computation.
An upward trend is posted only on the sixth year of operation. The study recommends the privatization of the enterprise. In a related paper, Lopez discusses the factors that eventually led to the privatization of the milkfish breeding programme. The Government sold the broodstock in 14 stations located in different parts of the country to private growers and hatchery operators. In the nursery phase of milkfish culture, Baliao et al.
Farmers are encouraged to stunt their own stock rather than buy at higher prices from nursery operators.
In the grow-out phase, the modular system of culturing milkfish in brackishwater ponds is more profitable than straight-run culture methods Agbayani et al. Aside from a high ROI Chong et al.
They find that major inefficiencies occur in the transformation sub-system rather than in the fry procurement or delivery sub-systems, and that production may be substantially increased if mortality rate is lowered during rearing and more supplementary inputs like fertilizer are applied. Some 56 explanatory variables - categorized into socio-economic, institutional, physical and biotechnical parameters - are hypothesized to explain variations in fertilizer use. The study concludes that milkfish farmers are responsive to relative prices of inputs and output and will adjust their fertilizer expenditure accordingly.
However, many farmers in some places cannot increase their fertilizer use because of the high cost of credit and organic fertilizers. There are two studies, undertaken ten years apart, on the socio-economics of milkfish fry and fingerlings.
These perspectives are compared with those of the traditional and largest ADF donors including Japan, the United States, Australia, and the European countries the latter are treated as a bloc because of their influence in the Bank when they vote together. The second is that the funding is aimed at leveraging and anchoring existing government programs, thereby providing an incentive for increased performance of much larger amounts of domestic expenditure. The ADB has a long history of both successes and failures , high standards, and a development focus on poverty that the new banks do not. Co-financing with the AIIB is a good sign for future cooperation. Long-term prediction of female breast cancer mortality in Korea.
In the first study, Smith debunks the alleged imperfections of the fry and fingerling industry, namely the shortage of catch to meet the milkfish farming requirement; the high fry mortality rate during transport; the ailure of the pricing system to perform its spatial and allocative functions; and the exploitation of fry gatherers and pond owners by middlemen and nursery operators. The second study, by Chan , compares the economic structures of two adjacent milkfish fry gathering villages in the northern Philippines. One site has beaches classified as part of the national seashore park and the other is under municipal management and concessioned to a group of resident small-scale fishermen.
Chan identifies and discusses the major differences in their economic structures, defines and analyzes their marketing systems, enumerates and recommends solutions to their problems ranging from gear inefficiency and storage inadequacy to dwindling catch , and discusses the significant economic and social contributions of milkfish fry gathering. Rearing baitfish for tuna longlines is more profitable than culturing market-size; however, the demand for baitfish is levelling off.
Shang compares the economics of milkfish culture in the Philippines and Taiwan P. The author discusses the relative costs of production in these countries in terms of output per unit input land and labour , the differences in production and marketing practices, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different farming practices. Dorairaj et al. The authors also analyze the methods and economics of fry and fingerling collection, packing and transportation.
Krishna et al. Extensive culture yield is 1. The study recommends that fish farmers who cannot afford to go into prawn farming take up milkfish culture. Lazarus and Nandakumaran ; report on their experimental culture of milkfish in polyethylene film-lined ponds dug out on sandy beaches.
The authors describe pond preparations, seed collection, feeding regimens, and survival and growth rates in the ponds. Joseph and Vadhyar compare the survival and growth rates and economic returns of milkfish culture using two different fertilizer treatments; one organic and the other inorganic. Milkfish is also cultured in some of the Pacific States, notably Kiribati.
Milkfish is primarily used as baitfish for tuna, a major export of the island states. Uwate discusses the economics of milkfish culture in Kiribati, including problems involved in the development of aquaculture projects. The sustainability of milkfish farming in Asia will rely heavily on the development of broodstock breeding and hatchery technologies. With the problems besetting the shrimp industry, farmers are shifting back to milkfish.
Fry from the wild will be unable to supply the requirements of growers.
Through international cooperation, milkfish fry production technologies have been developed for both extensive and intensive systems Lee et al. The nascent milkfish hatcheries have posted significant production. Some say hatchery-reared fry grow slowly and suffer from abnormalities; others say hatchery-bred fry are as good as wild-caught fry, in terms of survival and growth rate. Rearing the fry in nursery ponds for 30 days has enabled the fish farmers to eliminate those with abnormalities.
The Scylla serrata is the most popular mudcrab species cultured in Asia. Monocultured or polycultured with milkfish or shrimp, mudcrab fetch high prices from both the domestic and international markets. Sri Lankan mudcrab is well-known in the export market. Jayamanne reports an increasing trend in mudcrab production: from 1 mt in to 2 mt in To sustain the growth of the industry, Jayamanne recommends the prohibition of capturing immature crabs, the education of fisherfolk, and the development of better culture techniques.
Economic Opportunities for. Women in the East Asia and Pacific Region. Amanda Ellis. Daniel Kirkwood. Dhruv Malhotra. DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT. IFC Advisory Services in East Asia and the Pacific. In Partnership with . Adimaimalaga Tafuna'i, Women in Business Development Inc. Agasa Seumanutafa.
Consistently, the economic indicators such as ROI are highest and the payback period is shortest. Rajasekaran and Whiteford describe the culture of crabs in rice fields in southern India. The authors discuss the socio-cultural factors that influence the catching and consumption of crabs, and recommend policy guidelines for the conservation and propagation of rice-crab farming. Delathiere ; presents the reproduction, growth, length-weight relationship of the crab, as well as the socio-economic aspects of crab culture. In Asia and the Pacific, molluscs, seaweeds, pearl oysters and sponges are popularly maricultured.
Mainly the domain of small-scale farmers, mariculture has provided employment to coastal populations, augmented their food supply, and contributed significantly to the foreign exchange earnings of the producing countries. The production cost is relatively low; artificial feeds are not needed. The vast coastal waters of the Asia-Pacific countries are conducive to mariculture but accessibility problems and pollution have hampered expansion of the industry.
Small-scale fishermen in Hong Kong China engage in marine fish farming in cages Cheng, This method requires low-capital input but has a high risk due to natural disasters such as typhoons, red tide, pollution, diseases and the uncertainty of fish seed. Cultured molluscs include oysters, mussels, clams, cockles and scallops. The total production of molluscs in increased to 5. Oysters and mussels are the dominant economically-important molluscs in the Philippines. Samonte et al. The study recommends that the impoverished farmers form cooperatives so that they can avail themselves of financing and can market their products more efficiently.
A related study by Siar et al. Pearl has been cultivated in Myanmar for 40 years. Tun traces the history of the industry and describes the culture process - from fishing and seeding to harvesting. Local and foreign investors are involved in the industry.
Kunju et al. The study of Cheong and Loy show that it is economically viable to culture green mussels on a single m 2 raft using polycoco ropes, as well as in 0. Labour constitutes the largest variable cost; sensitivity tests show that increases in labor cost have greater impact than decreases in raft cost. A major concern of mollusc farmers in Korea, as in the Philippines, is the occurrence of red tide.
Park reports on the serious economic losses suffered by fish farmers whose mollusc and finfish farms are affected by red tide. Nine species of toxic phytoplankton have been identified as causing shellfish poisoning and massive fishkill. Giant clam farming has been found to be suitable in the waters surrounding the island states in the Pacific.
Hviding surveys and examines the important elements of the context of village-based giant clam mariculture. The economic potentials of village-based giant clam farming are analyzed by Hambrey and Gervis There is a need to develop a high-value market for the shell.